On 15 October 1999 (UNSCR 1267), the UNSC imposed targeted sanctions (asset freeze and aviation ban) on the Taliban regime (in control of Afghanistan at the time) for its refusal to turn over bin Laden for prosecution for the August 1998 bombing of US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania and its provision of sanctuary and training for international terrorists and their organizations.
Coerce the Taliban to turn over bin Laden.
Constrain the Taliban from engaging in a variety of proscribed activities (particularly as haven for terrorism).
Signal the Taliban for its violation of a number of norms (on terrorism, the cultivation of drugs, the ongoing armed conflict, kidnapping of diplomatic personnel, and the treatment of women).
Aviation ban on aircraft owned, leased, or operated by the Taliban and asset freeze on the Taliban regime.
Sanctions imposition was deliberately delayed by 1 month. Sanctions Committee created, no sanctions monitoring mechanism in place. Designation criteria were specified and targets designated (maximum number of designees during the episode – 1 individual designee, 6 entities). Enforcement authorities not specified.
Taliban refused to extradite bin Laden.
UN sanctions were not the primary tool for coercion; international diplomacy and US unilateral sanctions appeared more significant at the time (US legal proceedings were focused on bin Laden, not the Taliban).
Restrictions on Ariana Airlines forced the Taliban to find new sources of supply (Viktor Bout).
UN sanctions multi-lateralized US unilateral measures (affecting the Gulf and western China).
UNSCRs 1214 and 1267 clearly articulated violation of norm against terrorism under Chapter VII, but degree of stigmatization was limited; Taliban increased their proscribed activities and became increasingly intransigent.
The UNSCRs were the principal mechanism for communicating the international norm against terrorism, and Taliban was strongly stigmatized.
Increase in corruption and criminality, strengthening of authoritarian rule, rally round the flag effect, increase in human rights violations, strengthening of political factions, humanitarian consequences.