Angola - EP 1

Duration: 15-Sep-1993 to 28-Aug-1997

UN targeted sanctions were first threatened in July 1993 and then imposed in September 1993. The Lusaka Protocol (ceasefire and basis for unity government) was signed 20 November 1994. Uneven implementation of the agreement (disputes over ceasefire violations, political form of unity government, and DDR). Government of Unity and National Reconciliation (GURN) launched in April 1997, but was dominated by MPLA.

UNSCRs during the episode included UNSCR 851 (15 July 1993), on the extension of the mandate of UN Angola Verification Mission II, implementation of the Peace Accords for Angola, and explicitly threatening sanctions (an arms embargo), and UNSCR 864 (15 September 1993), on the extension of the mandate of the UN Angola Verification Mission II and arms and oil embargo against UNITA, to go into effect 10 days after the passage of the UNSCR (unless the SG says otherwise) sanctions on UNITA.


Coerce

Coerce UNITA to cease hostilities, abide by the peace accords, and accept the election results.

Constrain

Constrain UNITA from continuing its opposition to the terms of the agreement.

Signal

Signal UNITA to enforce the peace and accept a political settlement.


Mandatory

Arms imports embargo and petroleum and petroleum products imports ban to UNITA (except through points of entry named by the Government of Angola).


Sanctions imposition was deliberately delayed by 10 days. Sanctions Committee created, no sanctions monitoring mechanism in place. Enforcement authorities specified.


Coercion

Ineffective

Policy outcome

UNITA agreed to a process, but there were frequent violations during the episode (particularly with regard to ceasefire and DDR).

Sanctions contribution

The Angolan government captured UNITA's HQ 10 days before UNITA signed the Lusaka Protocol, but sanctions and the threat of further sanctions also played a role in unsettling UNITA commanders about maintaining access to weapons.

Constraint

Mixed

Policy outcome

Weapons remained available (from Zaire), but some diminution of the conflict at times during the episode.

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions and the threat of further sanctions had, according to HRW, a psychological impact on UNITA leadership about maintaining access to weapons.

Signaling

Mixed

Policy outcome

Norms stated in UNSCR, but ambivalence from the US and support from African allies ameliorated.

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions and the threat of further co-existed with ongoing negotiations.


Increase in corruption and criminality, strengthening of authoritarian rule, rally round the flag effect, strengthening of political factions.


15-09-1993

Substantive

  • Imposes arms imports embargo and petroleum imports ban to UNITA, except through points of entry named by the Government of Angola

Procedural

  • Delays sanctions implementation (10 days)
  • Establishes Sanctions Committee and specifies its mandate
  • Requests MS reporting