Angola - EP 2

Duration: 28-Aug-1997 to 12-Jun-1998

Following US frustration with Savimbi's foot-dragging and a growing concern that the MPLA was moving toward a peace through war strategy, new sanctions were added to support the peace process (with a two month delay in implementation) to pressure UNITA to implement more effectively key elements of the Lusaka Protocol (negotiated late in 1994). There are some concessions from UNITA, but not full implementation. This creates the appearance of UNITA not acting in good faith and civil war continued during the episode.

Relevant UNSCRs during the episode included UNSCR 1127 (28 August 1997), which imposed sanctions, but with one month delay in implementation; UNSCR 1130, which postponed sanctions for another month; and UNSCR 1135, which applied the sanctions.


Coerce

Coerce UNITA to implement the peace agreement (Lusaka Protocol), cease hostilities, engage in effective DDR, and implement provisions relating to the formations of a Government of Unity and National Reconciliation (GURN).

Constrain

Constrain UNITA from continuing its opposition to the terms of the agreement.

Signal

Signal UNITA to enforce the peace and accept democratization.


Mandatory

Ongoing arms imports embargo and petroleum and petroleum products imports ban to UNITA (except through points of entry named by the Government of Angola).

Newly imposed aviation ban on UNITA (except through points of entry named by the Government of Angola) and diplomatic sanctions on UNITA (travel ban on senior UNITA officials and their adult family members, suspension or cancellation of their travel documents, and closure of all UNITA offices).


Sanctions imposition was deliberately delayed (twice by 1 month). Sanctions Committee in place, no sanctions monitoring mechanism. Enforcement authorities specified.


Coercion

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Some UNITA concessions, but not implemented in good faith during the episode, tactical ceasefire in March 1998, but UNITA maintained 30 to 50K forces during this period.

Sanctions contribution

The Angolan government used the sanctions to its advantage militarily.

Constraint

Mixed

Policy outcome

Some demobilization, some increase in costs of target (diplomatic diversions, renaming of closed consulates).

Sanctions contribution

Some demobilization, some increase in costs of target (diplomatic diversions, renaming of closed consulates).

Signaling

Mixed

Policy outcome

UNITA was increasingly isolated (UNSCR 1127 increasingly focused on UNITA), but initially benefits from a rally round the flag moment from its leadership.

Sanctions contribution

The Angolan government used the sanctions to its advantage militarily.


Increase in corruption and criminality, strengthening of authoritarian rule, rally round the flag effect, strengthening of political factions.


28-08-1997

Substantive

  • Imposes a travel ban and suspension or cancellation of travel documents of senior UNITA officials and their adult family members and specifies exemption for those necessary for full functioning of Government of Unity and National Reconciliation, National Assembly, and the Joint Commission
  • Imposes closure of all UNITA offices
  • Imposes aviation ban on UNITA and the use of flag vessels or aircrafts to/from Angola, including components, insurance, servicing and engineering (except through named points of entry provided by the Government of Angola)
  • Specifies exemptions on the basis of medical emergency and humanitarian need (pending Committee approval)

Procedural

  • Delays sanction implementation (1 month)
  • Requests MS reporting

29-09-1997

Substantive

  • Further postpones the imposition of measures from UNSCR 1127 (1 month)

29-10-1997

Substantive

  • Authorizes the imposition of sanctions specified in UNSCR 1127 on the following day (30.10.1997)

Procedural

  • Requests MS reporting