Angola - EP 3

Duration: 12-Jun-1998 to 12-Jan-1999

Parties agreed to a timetable for implementing the Lusaka Protocol, but the deadline for completing the peace process (28 February 1998) was not met. UNITA became a legal political party in March, but retained elite fighting units and 20,000 troops. UNITA leadership specifically condemned for its failure to de-militarize (implement DDR) in UNSCR 1173.

Two months later UNITA attacked government forces, seized one-third of the territory ceded to the government, the GURN fell apart (UNITA ministers expelled from the government), splits began to appear within UNITA; the FNLA also split into two factions, and a second UNITA faction emerged. Government resumed a full military strategy against UNITA in December 1998.


Coerce

Coerce UNITA to cease hostilities and implement the peace agreement (demilitarization, acceptance of GURN presence).

Constrain

Constrain UNITA from being able to act autonomously.

Signal

Signal both parties to refrain from excessive use of force that might undermine the peace process.


Mandatory

Ongoing arms imports embargo, petroleum and petroleum products imports ban, and aviation ban on UNITA (except through points of entry named by the Government of Angola), and diplomatic sanctions on UNITA (travel ban on senior UNITA officials and their adult family members, suspension or cancellation of their travel documents, and closure of all UNITA offices).

Newly imposed asset freeze on UNITA, senior UNITA officials, and their adult family members, diamond exports ban, and prohibition on official contacts with UNITA and supply of mining and ground or waterborne transportation services and equipment in UNITA controlled areas.


Sanctions imposition was deliberately delayed by 20 days. Sanctions Committee in place, no sanctions monitoring mechanism. Designation criteria and enforcement authorities were specified.


Coercion

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Asset freeze and especially diamond sanctions prompted Savimbi to break the agreement, a split emerged within UNITA.

Sanctions contribution

Target acknowledged the significance of diamonds sanctions, but UNITA was also driven militarily from access to diamond areas.

Constraint

Effective

Policy outcome

Revenues from diamonds were reduced, and split developed within UNITA (which was taken advantage of by the Angolan government).

Sanctions contribution

Acknowledgment by the target about the significance of diamonds, but UNITA also driven militarily from access to diamond areas.

Signaling

Effective

Policy outcome

Savimbi branch of UNITA became increasingly isolated (only UNITA referenced as principal party in UNSCR 1173).

Sanctions contribution

Target acknowledged the significance of diamonds sanctions, but UNITA was also driven militarily from access to diamond areas.


Increase in corruption and criminality, strengthening of authoritarian rule, decline in the credibility and/or legitimacy of UN Security Council.


12-06-1998

Substantive

  • Imposes financial asset freeze on UNITA, senior UNITA officials and their adult family members
  • Prevents official contacts with UNITA leadership in areas of Angola not under State administration and specifies exemption for representatives of GURN, UN, and Lusaka Protocol
  • Imposes diamond exports ban, applying to diamonds not controlled by GURN Certificate of Origin regime
  • Imposes mining equipment and services imports ban to areas of Angola not under State administration
  • Imposes ban on ground or waterborne transportation equipment or services in areas of Angola not under State administration
  • Adds medical and humanitarian sanctions exemptions (no-objection procedure)

Procedural

  • Delays sanctions implementation (13 days)
  • Requests GURN designation of areas of Angola not under State administration
  • Requests MS reporting

24-06-1998

Procedural

  • Further postpones the imposition of measures from UNSCR 1173 (1 week)
  • Requests MS reporting