The shooting down of the second of two UN aircraft over UNITA controlled territory prompted strong reaction from UNSC (UNSCR 1221). Given the return to full-scale war, UN peacekeepers were removed in February 1999.
Canadian Ambassador Robert Fowler assumed chair of Angola Sanctions Committee in January, which sets up two expert panels in May (one on financing of UNITA and another on arms, later merged). This results in a major strengthening of the sanctions regime in terms of implementation at the UN level. The PoE "Fowler Report" is released and created a storm of protest by naming and shaming of African heads of state for their role in undermining UN sanctions. UNSC sets up a mechanism for monitoring sanctions violations (threat of secondary sanctions) in April 2000, but no secondary measures imposed.
Sanctions were continued in December 2000, and there was evidence that sanctions monitoring had disrupted UNITA's supply lines. A December 2001 offensive against UNITA ended with Savimbi (and his Vice President's) death in February 2002.
Phase out – A truce quickly followed in March, negotiations in April, and UNITA dismantled its armed wing in August. UN lifted sanctions in December 2002.
UNSCRs during the episode included UNSCR 1221 (January 1999) which expressed outrage and specifically named Savimbi and UNSCR 1237 (May 1999), which created a panels of experts. In March 2000 the "Fowler Report" S/2000/203 was released. Following this, UNSCR 1295 (April 2000), established a monitoring mechanism and UNSCR 1448 (December 2002) terminated sanctions immediately before Angola joined the UNSC.
Coerce UNITA to cease hostilities and implement the peace agreement.
Constrain UNITA from being able to act autonomously.
Stigmatize UNITA and its supporters in other African countries (including heads of state).
Ongoing arms imports embargo, petroleum and petroleum products imports ban, and aviation ban on UNITA (except through points of entry named by the Government of Angola), asset freeze on UNITA, senior UNITA officials, and their adult family members, diamond exports ban, prohibition on supply of mining and ground or waterborne transportation services and equipment into UNITA controlled areas.
Travel ban on senior UNITA officials and their adult family members and visa cancelation measures were suspended in May 2002 and lifted in November 2002.
Diplomatic sanctions on UNITA in the form of limitations of diplomatic representation persisted until the end of the sanctions regime.
No individual targets specified.
UN sanctions are likely to have significant impacts on the general population, since they include restrictions on the import of widely used commodities (such as oil), major commodity exports, and/or the transportation or financial sectors that affect the entire economy.
Suspension of travel ban and cancellation of travel documents of senior UNITA officials and their adult family members deliberately delayed (twice for 90 days). Sanctions Committee in place, Expert Panels and Monitoring mechanism created during the episode. Designation criteria and enforcement authorities were specified.
Sanctions contributed to shifting the balance of forces, but Savimbi showed no sign of concessions before his death.
Ultimately, the use of force was decisive.
Diplomatic sanctions terminated much of UNITA's official presence abroad; diamond sanctions weakened the prospects of UNITA's raising of funds; squeezing the financial sources led to no salt, no beer, and demoralization of Savimbi's forces.
Acknowledgment by the target of the impact of sanctions.
Savimbi became the principal target and was thoroughly isolated by UNSCR 1221.
Diplomatic pressure was also significant.
Increase in corruption and criminality, strengthening of authoritarian rule, decline in the credibility and/or legitimacy of UN Security Council, increase in international enforcement capacity in different issue domains.