Following a GoE report in early November 2005 that suggested diamonds were an illegal source of funds for weapons acquisition by the Forces Nouvelles (FN), and a Kimberley Process Plenary Meeting later in November 2005 linking illicit trade in diamonds with conflicts throughout the region, a diamond embargo was added to existing measures (UNSCR 1643, 15 December 2005) and the first designations (3) were made on 6 February 2006.
Other relevant UNSCRs during the period included UNSCR 1727 (December 2006), concerned with access to military installations, weapons depots. Initially, the militias failed to disarm, but began by 2007. Following a March 2007 power sharing agreement (the Ouagadougou Agreement), disarmament began in earnest in May of 2008. Between 2008 and 2010, the UNSC passed a series of UNSCRs, extending mandates, but also demanding access to military installations (which were thwarted by the government).
After years of delay, Presidential elections were finally held in October of 2010. Gbagbo won a plurality of the vote (38%) in the first round, but lost to Outtara in the direct run-off in November. Outtara was declared victor in the UN-certified run-off election in December 2010. Coerce the government to enforce the peace agreement first signed in 2003 and to hold presidential elections; constrain parties to the conflict by enforcing the arms embargo and supporting DDR processes, and signal parties of the conflict to cease hostilities and accept the terms of the peace agreement.
Coerce the government to enforce the peace agreement first signed in 2003 and to hold presidential elections.
Constrain parties to the conflict by enforcing the arms embargo and supporting DDR processes.
Signal parties of the conflict to cease hostilities and accept the terms of the peace agreement.
Ongoing arms imports embargo on all parties to the conflict (with conditional security forces exemptions), travel ban, and individual / entity asset freeze.
Newly imposed rough diamonds exports ban.
Maximum number of designees during the episode: 3 individuals.
UN sanctions can have some non-discriminating impact on the general population, since they include arms embargoes, diplomatic sanctions, and/or restrictions on the conduct of particular activities or the export of specific commodities.
Sanctions were imposed for a limited time period (1 year) and periodically renewed. Sanctions Committee and Group of Experts in place. Designation criteria were specified and targets designated. Enforcement authorities specified, PKO had enforcement role.
Elections were finally held in December of 2010, but they were delayed five times during the long episode and the post-election crisis reveals a lack of commitment to democratic processes.
Sanctions co-existed with, and reinforced, the mediation efforts (particularly the Ouagadougou power sharing agreement).
Neither the diamond embargo nor the arms inspections facilitated a significant reduction in access to weapons by the government or rebel group.
Sanctions were necessary for constraint and indirectly acknowledged by the target (given government evasion of inspections and diversion of trade in diamonds).
Norm was articulated, but not well (because so many different norms were invoked in UNSCRs over the five year period of the episode), yet some stigmatization from delays in holding elections.
Due to mediation efforts underway (Ouagadougou).
Increase in corruption and criminality, strengthening of authoritarian rule, harmful effects on neighboring states, increase in international regulatory capacity in different issue domains, resource diversion.