Côte d'Ivoire - EP 2

Duration: 15-Dec-2005 to 20-Dec-2010

Following a GoE report in early November 2005 that suggested diamonds were an illegal source of funds for weapons acquisition by the Forces Nouvelles (FN), and a Kimberley Process Plenary Meeting later in November 2005 linking illicit trade in diamonds with conflicts throughout the region, a diamond embargo was added to existing measures (UNSCR 1643, 15 December 2005) and the first designations (3) were made on 6 February 2006.

Other relevant UNSCRs during the period included UNSCR 1727 (December 2006), concerned with access to military installations, weapons depots. Initially, the militias failed to disarm, but began by 2007. Following a March 2007 power sharing agreement (the Ouagadougou Agreement), disarmament began in earnest in May of 2008. Between 2008 and 2010, the UNSC passed a series of UNSCRs, extending mandates, but also demanding access to military installations (which were thwarted by the government).

After years of delay, Presidential elections were finally held in October of 2010. Gbagbo won a plurality of the vote (38%) in the first round, but lost to Outtara in the direct run-off in November. Outtara was declared victor in the UN-certified run-off election in December 2010. Coerce the government to enforce the peace agreement first signed in 2003 and to hold presidential elections; constrain parties to the conflict by enforcing the arms embargo and supporting DDR processes, and signal parties of the conflict to cease hostilities and accept the terms of the peace agreement.


Coerce

Coerce the government to enforce the peace agreement first signed in 2003 and to hold presidential elections.

Constrain

Constrain parties to the conflict by enforcing the arms embargo and supporting DDR processes.

Signal

Signal parties of the conflict to cease hostilities and accept the terms of the peace agreement.


Mandatory

Ongoing arms imports embargo on all parties to the conflict (with conditional security forces exemptions), travel ban, and individual / entity asset freeze.

Newly imposed rough diamonds exports ban.


Sanctions were imposed for a limited time period (1 year) and periodically renewed. Sanctions Committee and Group of Experts in place. Designation criteria were specified and targets designated (maximum number of designees during the episode – 3 individual designees). Enforcement authorities specified, PKO had enforcement role.


Coercion

Effective

Policy outcome

Elections were finally held in December of 2010, but they were delayed five times during the long episode and the post-election crisis reveals a lack of commitment to democratic processes.

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions co-existed with, and reinforced, the mediation efforts (particularly the Ouagadougou power sharing agreement).

Constraint

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Neither the diamond embargo nor the arms inspections facilitated a significant reduction in access to weapons by the government or rebel group.

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions were necessary for constraint and indirectly acknowledged by the target (given government evasion of inspections and diversion of trade in diamonds).

Signaling

Mixed

Policy outcome

Norm was articulated, but not well (because so many different norms were invoked in UNSCRs over the five year period of the episode), yet some stigmatization from delays in holding elections.

Sanctions contribution

Due to mediation efforts underway (Ouagadougou).


Increase in corruption and criminality, strengthening of authoritarian rule, harmful effects on neighboring states, increase in international regulatory capacity in different issue domains, resource diversion.


15-12-2005

Substantive

  • Renews UNSCR 1572 arms imports embargo, travel ban and asset freeze (1 year)
  • Imposes rough diamonds exports ban from Côte d’Ivoire

Procedural

  • Re-establishes Group of Experts (6 months)and specifies its mandate
  • Sets sanctions review (1 year)
  • Requests MS concerned, French Government and Kimberley Process reporting

14-09-2006

Procedural

  • Extends Group of Experts mandate (3 months).

01-11-2006

Substantive

  • Extends International Working Group (IWG) role and stresses the mandate of the Prime Minister.

Procedural

  • Renews and modifies High Representative for the Elections (established by UNSCR 1603) mandate (1 year).
  • Requests IWG, AU, and ECOWAS reporting.

15-12-2006

Substantive

  • Renews UNSCR 1572 arms imports embargo, travel ban and asset freeze and UNSCR 1643 diamond exports ban (until 31.10.2007).
  • Delineates designation criteria.

Procedural

  • Extends and modifies Group of Experts mandate (6 months).
  • Sets sanctions review (by 31.10.2007).
  • Requests MS concerned, French Government and Kimberley Process reporting.

20-06-2007

Procedural

  • Extends Group of Experts mandate (until 31.10.2007).

16-07-2007

Procedural

  • Renews UNOCI and French forces mandates (6 months).
  • Terminates High Representative for the Elections mandate.

29-10-2007

Substantive

  • Renews UNSCR 1572 arms imports embargo, travel ban and asset freeze and UNSCR 1643 diamond exports ban (1 year).
  • Delineates criteria for further designations.

Procedural

  • Extends Group of Experts mandate (1 year).
  • Sets sanctions review (1 year).
  • Requests MS concerned, French Government and Kimberley Process reporting.

29-10-2008

Substantive

  • Renews UNSCR 1572 arms imports embargo, travel ban and asset freeze and UNSCR 1643 diamond exports ban (1 year).
  • Delineates criteria for further designations.

Procedural

  • Extends Group of Experts mandate (1 year).
  • Sets sanctions review (1 year).
  • Requests MS concerned, French Government and Kimberley Process reporting.

29-10-2009

Substantive

  • Renews UNSCR 1572 arms imports embargo, travel ban and asset freeze and UNSCR 1643 diamond exports ban (1 year).
  • Introduces diamond exports ban exemption for scientific research and technical information.
  • Delineates criteria for further designations.

Procedural

  • Extends Group of Experts mandate (1 year).
  • Sets sanctions review (1 year).
  • Requests MS concerned, French Government and Kimberley Process reporting.

15-10-2010

Substantive

  • Renews UNSCR 1572 arms imports embargo, travel ban and asset freeze and UNSCR 1643 diamond exports ban (until 30.04.2011).
  • Introduces arms imports embargo exemption for non-lethal equipment for Ivorian security forces.
  • Delineates criteria for further designations.

Procedural

  • Extends Group of Experts mandate (until 30.04.2011).
  • Sets sanctions review (by 30.04.2011).
  • Requests MS concerned, French Government and Kimberley Process reporting.