Gbagbo and Outtara both declared victory in December 2010. The Independent Election Commission declared Ouattara the winner of the run-off election and the results were recognized by ECOWAS and the AU. Gbagbo refused to accept the electoral outcome and violence ensued.
UNSCR 1962 (20 December 2010) urged Gbagbo and his supporters to accept the electoral results. UNSCR 1975 (30 March 2011) imposed an asset freeze and travel ban on Gbagbo, his wife, and 3 of their key supporters.
Coerce Gbagbo to accept the results of the UN certified election.
Constrain Gbagbo and his supporters from opposing the electoral results.
Signal support for peace enforcement and democratic transition.
Ongoing arms imports embargo on all parties to the conflict (with conditional security forces exemptions), travel ban, individual / entity asset freeze, and rough diamonds exports ban.
Maximum number of designees during the episode: 8 individuals.
UN sanctions can have some non-discriminating impact on the general population, since they include arms embargoes, diplomatic sanctions, and/or restrictions on the conduct of particular activities or the export of specific commodities.
Sanctions from previous episodes imposed for a limited time period (1 year). Sanctions Committee and Group of Experts in place. Designation criteria were specified and targets designated. Enforcement authorities specified, PKO had enforcement role.
Outtara installed as President following ECOWAS (WAEMU) closing of Central Bank and Gbagbo's arrest by French/UN/rebel forces.
Changes on the ground were decisive militarily; rescinding Gbagbo's authority to access funds from the Central Bank also appears to have been a critical factor in undermining the regime.
Rescinding Gbagbo's authority to access funds from the Central Bank appears to have been a critical factor in constraining the Gbagbo regime; e.g. Gbagbo's reliance on extortion from prominent businesses for financial support in April.
UN sanctions followed measures taken by regional organizations in Africa and Europe.
Norm clearly articulated and target (former President Gbagbo) fully stigmatized by being added to a UN sanctions list and referred to the ICC.
Designation of both Gbagbo and his wife were significant.
Increase in corruption and criminality, strengthening of authoritarian rule, increase in human rights violations, harmful effects on neighboring states, strengthening of political factions, resource diversion, humanitarian consequences.