Côte d'Ivoire - EP 3

Duration: 20-Dec-2010 to 28-Apr-2011

Gbagbo and Outtara both declared victory in December 2010. The Independent Election Commission declared Ouattara the winner of the run-off election and the results were recognized by ECOWAS and the AU. Gbagbo refused to accept the electoral outcome and violence ensued.

UNSCR 1962 (20 December 2010) urged Gbagbo and his supporters to accept the electoral results. UNSCR 1975 (30 March 2011) imposed an asset freeze and travel ban on Gbagbo, his wife, and 3 of their key supporters.


Coerce

Coerce Gbagbo to accept the results of the UN certified election.

Constrain

Constrain Gbagbo and his supporters from opposing the electoral results.

Signal

Signal support for peace enforcement and democratic transition.


Mandatory

Ongoing arms imports embargo on all parties to the conflict (with conditional security forces exemptions), travel ban, individual / entity asset freeze, and rough diamonds exports ban.


Sanctions from previous episodes imposed for a limited time period (1 year). Sanctions Committee and Group of Experts in place. Designation criteria were specified and targets designated (maximum number of designees during the episode – 8 individual designees). Enforcement authorities specified, PKO had enforcement role.


Coercion

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Outtara installed as President following ECOWAS (WAEMU) closing of Central Bank and Gbagbo's arrest by French/UN/rebel forces.

Sanctions contribution

Changes on the ground were decisive militarily; rescinding Gbagbo's authority to access funds from the Central Bank also appears to have been a critical factor in undermining the regime.

Constraint

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Rescinding Gbagbo's authority to access funds from the Central Bank appears to have been a critical factor in constraining the Gbagbo regime; e.g. Gbagbo's reliance on extortion from prominent businesses for financial support in April.

Sanctions contribution

UN sanctions followed measures taken by regional organizations in Africa and Europe.

Signaling

Effective

Policy outcome

Norm clearly articulated and target (former President Gbagbo) fully stigmatized by being added to a UN sanctions list and referred to the ICC.

Sanctions contribution

Designation of both Gbagbo and his wife were significant.


Increase in corruption and criminality, strengthening of authoritarian rule, increase in human rights violations, harmful effects on neighboring states, strengthening of political factions, resource diversion, humanitarian consequences.


20-12-2010

Procedural

  • Sets new UNOCI troop sizes.
  • Extends redeployment of UNMIL to UNOCI and authorizes additional UNOCI personnel deployment (1 month).
  • Renews UNOCI mandate under UNSCR 1933 and extends French forces mandate (until 30.06.2011).

19-01-2011

Procedural

  • Authorizes additional UNOCI personal deployment (until 30.06.2011).
  • Extends the UNSCR 1951 redeployment from UNMIL to UNOCI and authorizes transfer of 3 armed helicopters with crew (1 month).

16-02-2011

Procedural

  • Authorizes Secretary-General to extend temporary redeployment from UNMIL to UNOCI (3 months).

20-03-2011

Substantive

  • Imposes financial asset freeze and travel ban on newly designated individuals (Gbagbo and his circle).