Côte d'Ivoire - EP 4

Duration: 28-Apr-2011 to 28-Apr-2016

Ouattara was inaugurated President in May of 2011, but peace enforcement sanctions remained in place to inhibit potential spoilers. In September 2011 a Truth, Reconciliation and Dialogue Commission was launched, and, in November 2011, Gbagbo was handed over to the International Criminal Court in The Hague to face charges of crimes against humanity. In December 2011, Ouattara and his allies secured a majority in Parliamentary elections following a boycott of the election by Gbagbo supporters. In June of 2012, the Interior Minister declared that a plot by Gbagbo supporters to overthrow the Outtara government was foiled. Gbagbo supporters met with and sought support from members of the military junta that overthrew the government in Mali and also formed a strategic command to destabilize the Outtara government. In September/October 2012, the border with Ghana was closed for two weeks following a deadly attack on an army checkpoint in the border town of Noe.

A sharp increase in banditry in the north was noted during 2013, linked to former fighters not reintegrated in the DDR program, drawing on access to weapons from the Sahel. While there was progress in stabilizing the security situation along the borders with Ghana and Liberia, there were charges from Ghana that the Ivoirian government was sending Liberian mercenaries to kidnap pro-Gbagbo refugees residing in Ghana. Simone Gbagbo was convicted of crimes against the state by an Ivoirian court in March 2015 and a trial against her for charges of crimes against humanity began in Abidjan in May 2016. Her 2012 ICC indictment for war crimes remains open in the pre-trial stage. Proceedings continued against her husband in the Hague.

UNSCR 1980 (28 April 2011) relaxed the arms embargo on government forces (authorizing an exemption, if the UN sanctions committee approves). UNSCR 2045 (26 April 2012) renewed the individual sanctions against Gbagbo and his close supporters, continued the sanctions on diamond exports, and maintained the arms embargo, as relaxed in 2011. UNSCR 2101 (25 April 2013) maintained the existing sanctions regime for another year, but relaxed the notification scheme for non-lethal law enforcement equipment. UNSCR 2112 (30 July 2013) extended the mandate of the UNOCI (UN operations in the country) for an additional year. UNSCR 2153 (29 April 2014) further relaxed the arms embargo (exempting Ivoirian security forces), maintained the travel ban and asset freeze, but terminated the ban on the export of diamonds, noting Kimberley Process Certification Scheme implementation and progress in the governance of the sector. The sanctions were extended for another year (in UNSCR 2219 of 29 April 2015), as was the mandate of the Group of Experts. The UNOCI mandate was reduced on 20 January 2016 (UNSCR 2260) and extended for a final period until June 2017 on 28 April 2016 (UNSCR 2284).

Reports of the Group of Experts indicate that despite progress in DDR and SSR programs as part of the larger peacebuilding process, armed elements linked to the pro-Gbagbo radical wing remained "highly operational" and were involved in cross-border attacks along the Liberian border in February 2014 and January 2015. The final report of the Group of Experts of 17 March 2016 noted that Côte d'Ivoire had made significant process in democratization and stabilization following the post-electoral crisis of 2010-2011. The presidential elections of October 2015 were considered to be free and fair despite the partial boycott by FPI supporters and reduced turnout. The report also noted the partial success of the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration process, while noting the need to continue the process of security sector reform, to strengthen counter-terrorism efforts, and to protect the borders with Liberia and Guinea from illegal crossings of persons and natural resources. Finally, the report emphasized the positive impact of the sanctions regime in preventing the acquisition of major weapons systems. (S/2015/254).

On 28 April 2016 the UNSC terminated all sanctions measures (partial arms embargo, travel ban, and asset freeze) and dissolved the Sanctions Committee and its Group of Experts (UNSCR 2283).


Coerce

Coerce Gbagbo supporters to accept electoral results, engage in political processes, and desist from using force to de-stabilize the government.

Constrain

Constrain Gbagbo forces from using force to challenge the Outtara government.

Signal

Signal support for peaceful democratic change of power.


Mandatory

Ongoing arms imports embargo (with conditional security forces exemptions), travel ban, and individual / entity asset freeze.

Rough diamonds exports ban was terminated in April 2014.


Sanctions imposed for a limited time period (1 year) and periodically renewed. Sanctions Committee and Group of Experts in place. Designation criteria were specified and targets designated (maximum number of designees during the episode – 8 individual designees). Enforcement authorities specified, PKO had enforcement role.


Coercion

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Gbagbo supporters boycotted the parliamentary elections in 2011 but participated in the presidential election in October 2015. Turnout was low, and some Gbagbo (FPI) supporters boycotted the election. Some also resisted militarily during the episode (most recently in early 2015 along the Liberian border).

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions were only partially implemented, and other measures (PKO, peacebuilding efforts and ICC referral) were more important in coercing change.

Constraint

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Over the course of the episode, military challenges from Gbago supporters decreased, suggesting Gbagbo supporters were constrained, but still able to engage in occasional activities involving the use of force.

Sanctions contribution

The activities of PKO and peacebuilding efforts were more significant to the outcome.

Signaling

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Gbagbo was strongly stigmatized with the ICC referral, but this may have prompted potential spoilers to try to destabilize the regime early in the episode, and some armed resistance continued along the border.

Sanctions contribution

ICC referral sent a more powerful signal than sanctions (which had been imposed in preceding episode).


Increase in criminality and corruption, harmful effects on neighboring states, increase in the role of the state in the economy, decline in the credibility/legitimacy of the UN Security Council.


28-04-2011

Substantive

  • Renews UNSCR 1572 arms imports embargo, travel ban and asset freeze and UNSCR 1643 diamond exports ban (1 year).
  • Adds supply of vehicles to Ivorian security forces to UNSCR 1572 arms imports embargo and decides that UNSCR 1572 arms embargo exemption procedure shall apply only to Ivorian SSR.
  • Delineates criteria for further designations.

Procedural

  • Extends Group of Experts mandate (1 year).
  • Sets sanctions review (3 months).
  • Requests MS concerned, French Government and Kimberley Process reporting.

26-04-2012

Substantive

  • Replaces UNSCR 1572 arms imports embargo with a new arms imports embargo (1 year), excluding security and military training, advice, expertise and supplies of civilian vehicles to the Ivorian security forces.
  • Specifies humanitarian, peacekeeping, and Ivorian security forces arms imports embargo exemptions.
  • Renews UNSCR 1572 and 1975 financial asset freeze and travel ban and UNSCR 1643 diamond exports ban (1 year).

Procedural

  • Extends Group of Experts mandate (1 year).
  • Sets sanctions review (1 year).
  • Requests MS concerned, French Government and Kimberley Process reporting.

25-04-2013

Substantive

  • Renews UNSCR 2045 arms imports embargo, UNSCR 1572 and 1975 financial asset freeze and travel ban and UNSCR 1643 diamond exports ban (1 year).
  • Specifies arms imports embargo exemptions for UNOCI and French forces, humanitarian or protective use, evacuation of nationals and supplies to Ivorian security forces of arms and lethal equipment for SSR and non-lethal equipment for public order and law enforcement (pending Committee approval).

Procedural

  • Extends Group of Experts mandate (1 year).
  • Sets sanctions review (1 year).
  • Requests MS concerned, French Government and Kimberley Process reporting.

29-04-2014

Substantive

  • Renews UNSCR 2045 and 2101 arms imports embargo (1 year) and specifies exemptions for Ivorian security forces, UNOCI and French forces supporting them, (prior Committee notification) MS evacuation of nationals, and SSR exempt items in Annex (which require prior Committee approval).
  • Renews UNSCR 1572 and 1975 financial asset freeze and travel ban (1 year).
  • Terminates UNSCR 1643 diamond exports ban.

Procedural

  • Extends Group of Experts mandate (13 months)
  • Specifies arms imports embargo notification and approval procedure (timing, relevant information, intended purpose and modifications).
  • Sets sanctions review (1 year).
  • Requires Ivorian authorities DDR and SSR reporting.
  • Requests Côte d'Ivoire and French reporting.

28-04-2015

Substantive

  • Renews UNSCR 2045, 2101 and 2153 arms imports embargo (until 30.04.2016) and specifies exemptions for Ivorian security forces, UNOCI and French forces supporting them, MS evacuation of nationals, and SSR exempt items in Annex (which require prior Committee approval).
  • Renews UNSCR 1572 and 1975 financial asset freeze and travel ban (until 30.04.2016).

Procedural

  • Extends Group of Experts mandate (until 30.05.2016).
  • Sets sanctions review (by 30.04.2016).
  • Requires Ivorian authorities DDR and SSR reporting.
  • Requests Côte d'Ivoire and French reporting.

28-04-2016

Substantive

  • Terminates UNSCR 2045, 2101, 2153, and 2219 arms imports embargo and UNSCR 1572 and 1975 financial asset freeze and travel ban.

Procedural

  • Dissolves Group of Experts and Sanctions Committee.