Côte d'Ivoire - EP 1

Duration: 15-Nov-2004 to 15-Dec-2005

The UN authorized a PKO to reinforce the peace agreement in March 2004 (UNSCR 1528). Following an attack on French forces enforcing aspects of the Linas Marcoussis Agreement in November of 2004, sanctions were first imposed through UNSCR 1572 (November 2004).

Citing repeated violations of the ceasefire agreement, implementation capacity at the UN level was strengthened in February 2005 with the creation of a Group of Experts, the granting of an enforcement role for PKO and French forces, and threat of additional sanctions, in UNSCR 1584.


Coerce

Coerce the government to enforce the peace agreement signed in 2003 (support government of national unity, DDR, hold presidential elections).

Constrain

Constrain all parties to the conflict with an arms embargo.

Signal

Signal parties of the conflict to cease hostilities and accept the terms of the peace agreement.


Mandatory

Arms imports embargo on all parties to the conflict (conditional government exemption for defense and security forces under the Linas Marcoussis Agreement), individual / entity asset freeze and travel ban against individuals threatening peace and national reconciliation process, engaging in serious human rights and international humanitarian law violations, publicly inciting hatred and violence, or violating sanctions measures.


Sanctions were imposed for a limited time period (travel ban and asset freeze for 1 year, arms embargo for 13 months). The imposition of travel ban and asset freeze was deliberately delayed by 1 month. Sanctions Committee created at the onset, Group of Experts created 3 months after sanctions imposition. Designation criteria were specified but no targets were designated. Enforcement authorities were specified, PKO had enforcement role.


Coercion

Ineffective

Policy outcome

No positive movement toward convening of elections, but following ECOWAS, UNSCR 1633 recognized the difficulty and legitimized Gbagbo's mandate for an additional year.

Sanctions contribution

Regional initiatives by ECOWAS and other countries (Mbeki in April 2005), presence of ECOWAS and French military forces appeared more significant; no individuals designated.

Constraint

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Increase in costs could be managed by target because weapons were widely available and borders unregulated (reference to both Liberia and Sierra Leone in UNSCR 1584).

Sanctions contribution

No designations made, but implementation of arms embargo was good according to GoE; enforcement by peacekeeping forces more significant to the outcome.

Signaling

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Signal poorly articulated due to ambiguity of goals (calls to implement the terms of the peace agreement, following ECOWAS, legitimating Gbagbo's decision to postpone elections in UNSCR 1633.

Sanctions contribution

Absence of designations contributes to poor signal, but mediation efforts by ECOWAS and other parties and presence of peacekeeping forces also play a role in sending mixed signals.


Strengthening of authoritarian rule, increase in the growth of the state role in the economy.


15-11-2001

Substantive

  • Imposes arms imports embargo to Côte d’Ivoire, including military assistance, advice or training (13 months) and specifies exemptions for UNOCI and French forces, humanitarian or protective use, evacuation of nationals and process of restructuring defense and security forces under Linas-Marcoussis Agreement (pending Committee approval)
  • Imposes travel ban (1 year) and specifies humanitarian, religious, peace, and national reconciliation exemptions (pending Committee approval)
  • Imposes financial asset freeze (1 year) and specifies exemptions for necessary basic expenses, extraordinary expenses, and expenses subject of a judicial, administrative or arbitral lien or judgment (pending Committee approval)
  • Delineates designation criteria

Procedural

  • Delays the imposition of travel ban and financial asset freeze (1 month)
  • Establishes Sanctions Committee and specifies its mandate
  • Sets sanctions review (13 months)
  • Requests MS concerned reporting

01-02-2005

Substantive

  • Authorizes UNOCI and French forces to support the implementation of UNSCR 1572 arms imports embargo

Procedural

  • Establishes Group of Experts (6 months) and specifies its mandate
  • Requests French Government reporting

18-10-2005

Procedural

  • Extends Group of Experts mandate (until 15.12.2002)

21-10-2005

Substantive

  • Supports establishment of International Working Group
  • Reaffirms its readiness to impose sanctions against any person blocking implementation of the peace process, determined responsible for serious human rights and international humanitarian law violations, publicly inciting hatred and violence, or violating the arms embargo