The UN authorized a PKO to reinforce the peace agreement in March 2004 (UNSCR 1528). Following an attack on French forces enforcing aspects of the Linas Marcoussis Agreement in November of 2004, sanctions were first imposed through UNSCR 1572 (November 2004).
Citing repeated violations of the ceasefire agreement, implementation capacity at the UN level was strengthened in February 2005 with the creation of a Group of Experts, the granting of an enforcement role for PKO and French forces, and threat of additional sanctions, in UNSCR 1584.
Coerce the government to enforce the peace agreement signed in 2003 (support government of national unity, DDR, hold presidential elections).
Constrain all parties to the conflict with an arms embargo.
Signal parties of the conflict to cease hostilities and accept the terms of the peace agreement.
Arms imports embargo on all parties to the conflict (conditional government exemption for defense and security forces under the Linas Marcoussis Agreement), individual / entity asset freeze and travel ban against individuals threatening peace and national reconciliation process, engaging in serious human rights and international humanitarian law violations, publicly inciting hatred and violence, or violating sanctions measures.
No individual targets specified.
UN sanctions can have some non-discriminating impact on the general population, since they include arms embargoes, diplomatic sanctions, and/or restrictions on the conduct of particular activities or the export of specific commodities.
Sanctions were imposed for a limited time period (travel ban and asset freeze for 1 year, arms embargo for 13 months). The imposition of travel ban and asset freeze was deliberately delayed by 1 month. Sanctions Committee created at the onset, Group of Experts created 3 months after sanctions imposition. Designation criteria were specified but no targets were designated. Enforcement authorities were specified, PKO had enforcement role.
No positive movement toward convening of elections, but following ECOWAS, UNSCR 1633 recognized the difficulty and legitimized Gbagbo's mandate for an additional year.
Regional initiatives by ECOWAS and other countries (Mbeki in April 2005), presence of ECOWAS and French military forces appeared more significant; no individuals designated.
Increase in costs could be managed by target because weapons were widely available and borders unregulated (reference to both Liberia and Sierra Leone in UNSCR 1584).
No designations made, but implementation of arms embargo was good according to GoE; enforcement by peacekeeping forces more significant to the outcome.
Signal poorly articulated due to ambiguity of goals (calls to implement the terms of the peace agreement, following ECOWAS, legitimating Gbagbo's decision to postpone elections in UNSCR 1633.
Absence of designations contributes to poor signal, but mediation efforts by ECOWAS and other parties and presence of peacekeeping forces also play a role in sending mixed signals.
Strengthening of authoritarian rule, increase in the growth of the state role in the economy.