With the adoption of UNSCR 1493 (28 July 2003) an arms embargo was imposed on all foreign armed groups operating in the eastern region of the DRC and on the non-signatories of the Global and All Inclusive Peace Agreement (GPA) of 2002 that created a power sharing transitional government (for 1 year). UNSCR 1533 (12 March 2004) created a Sanctions Committee and a Group of Experts (GoE) and authorized MONUC to enforce the arms embargo. UNSCR 1552 (27 July 2004) renewed the arms embargo for another year and re-established the Group of Experts.
Coerce belligerents to sign and implement the GPA (hold elections) and cease hostilities in the eastern Congo.
Constrain the capacity of all parties to engage in violence (peace enforcement).
Signal support for peace enforcement to parties to the conflict.
Arms imports embargo on all armed groups and militias operating in North and South Kivu and Ituri, as well as groups in DRC not party to the Global and All-inclusive agreement.
No individual sanctions imposed.
UN sanctions can have some non-discriminating impact on the general population, since they include arms embargoes, diplomatic sanctions, and/or restrictions on the conduct of particular activities or the export of specific commodities.
Sanctions were imposed for a limited time period (1 year) and periodically renewed. Sanctions Committee and Group of Experts created 8 months after sanctions imposition. Enforcement authorities specified, PKO had enforcement role.
No evidence of any belligerents agreeing to sign the GPA.
Sanctions co-existed with MONUC (UN PKO) and GPA (diplomatic efforts).
Some mid-level combatants deserted the rebel groups and there was a general reduction in levels of armed violence (although the war had ended, the region was already awash in arms and armed violence continued in many local areas).
Given statements from combatants who felt threatened by the embargo and joined government forces, but the existence of the peace agreement and end of the war also played important roles (even though local armed violence continued).
Peace enforcement and cessation of hostilities were clearly signaled and some stigmatization of the target through GoE reports; also increased awareness of sanctions regime by regional actors.
Sanctions appeared necessary, but not sufficient, and there was some acknowledgement by the target.
Decline in the credibility and/or legitimacy of UN Security Council, rise of new militias.