The arms embargo was extended to the entire country (to facilitate SSR and DDR), but exceptions were provided (with onerous processes for verification and advance notification) for transition government armed forces being rebuilt as part of a general peacebuilding process. Individual sanctions (travel ban and asset freeze) were applied in order to reduce hostilities by militias and foreign armed groups and facilitate a broader political settlement (in particular, to hold scheduled elections).
A new constitution was adopted and approved in 2005, elections were held in July of 2006, and Kabila was declared the victor (over Jean-Pierre Bemba) in a run-off election in November 2006. Bemba was exiled in April 2007, and another peace pact (between DRC and armed groups, including the National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP), a rebel faction headed by General Laurent Nkunda) was signed in January 2008 with the intention of bringing peace to the eastern DRC.
UNSCR 1596 (18 April 2005) extended the arms embargo to the entire country, requested a list of individuals who impeded SSR and DDR and elections, and provided for exceptions for government forces. UNSCR 1649 (21 December 2005) applied sanctions to a group of individuals (leaders of armed factions and militias impeding DDR and the political settlement). UNSCR 1698 (31 July 2006) extended the individual sanctions to leaders engaged in the recruitment of child soldiers. Sectoral commodity sanctions (that fuel the conflict) were also threatened for the first time.
Coerce belligerent rebel groups remaining outside of the GPA to participate in the political process (especially the elections, and engage in SSR and DDR).
Constrain the rebels from continuing to participate in hostilities, as well as regional actors from Rwanda and Uganda from supporting them.
Signal parties to the conflict support for the legitimacy of the transitional government.
The ongoing arms imports embargo on non-governmental entities was extended to the entire country.
Newly imposed travel ban and asset freeze.
Maximum number of designees during the episode: 17 individuals and 6 entities.
UN sanctions can have some non-discriminating impact on the general population, since they include arms embargoes, diplomatic sanctions, and/or restrictions on the conduct of particular activities or the export of specific commodities.
Sanctions were imposed for a limited time period (1 year) and periodically renewed. Sanctions Committee and Group of Experts in place. Designation criteria were specified and targets designated. Enforcement authorities specified, PKO had enforcement role.
Major warring factions concluded that elections were preferable to violence, while some others interested in future political careers in the DRC changed their behavior and joined the process.
Sanctions contributed to a larger effort during this episode, including increased international attention, DDR, SSR, EU efforts, and elections that signaled the potential for peace; changes in Ituri region were due to numerous small peace agreements with different armed groups.
There is limited evidence that total levels of arms were reduced, but there was some evidence of a disruption of the gold trade through Ugandan traders used to finance arms purchases.
Given the presence of arms in the region, the porosity of borders, and the problems associated with MONUC forces (low capacity and unwillingness to carry out its mandate) and evidence of the selling of arms to belligerents in the Ituri region during this episode; sanctions disrupted the gold trade.
Transition government was signaled as legitimate to domestic, regional, and international actors and targets were identified and stigmatized.
Sanctions contributed to a larger diplomatic effort during this episode, including increased international attention, DDR, SSR, EU efforts, and elections that signaled the potential for peace.
Strengthening of authoritarian rule, strengthening of political factions, resource diversion.