Former Yugoslavia I


15 September 1991 - 1 October 1996
(about 5 years)
Cease hostilities, Agreement negotiation, Peace enforcement, Human rights
Sanction Types
  • Arms (arms imports embargo)
  • Comprehensive (May 1992 - October 1996)
Non-UN Sanctions
Regional (EU), Unilateral (US)
Other Policy Instruments
Diplomacy, Legal tribunals, Peace operations, Threat of military force, Use of military force


With the end of the Cold War, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) went through a rapid process of disintegration. Following referendums in their respective communities, both Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence on 25 June 1991. Serbia, led by nationalist Slobodan Milosevic, refused to accept the dissolution of Yugoslavia (which would divide the Serb people into 4 different republics: Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Croatia) and violent conflict erupted in the region. The Serb-controlled Yugoslav National Army (YNA) moved towards Slovenia and fighting erupted on 27 June 1991. The conflict, generally known as the Ten-Day War, formally ended with the 7 July 1991 Brioni Agreement, negotiated under the auspices of the European Community, and Slovenia and Croatia subsequently agreed to a three-month moratorium on their independence. While the military confrontation with Slovenia was short lived and the YNA withdrew from its territory, the conflict with Croatia escalated. Fighting intensified following the July 1991 invasion by YNA forces and the termination of the conflict with Slovenia left Yugoslav forces able to focus on the military confrontation with Croatia. Other parts of Yugoslavia were also seeking independence. Macedonia and Kosovo held their independence referendums in early September 1991 and Macedonia formally declared its independence from SFRY on 25 September.


The analysis of the Former Yugoslavia I (FRY I) case is divided into the following episodes (also navigable via the numbers in the top bar):