Shortly after sanctions were imposed, mediation efforts were intensified, and Dayton Chief negotiator, Richard Holbrooke, brought Rugova (self-declared Republic of Kosova) and Milosevic (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia – Serbia and Montenegro) together for direct talks. Negotiations quickly broke down, and as more violence ensued, Rugova traveled to New York to appeal for UN/NATO intervention. NATO exercises in the region were used to send a signal in June 1998, and key Contact Group members (plus Japan and Canada) increased their unilateral sanctions on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro, including the autonomous province of Kosovo and Metohija). In early August, a Serbian offensive drove thousands of villagers into the hills. In September, the Security Council adopted UNSCR 1199 demanding a ceasefire, a Serbian withdrawal, and threatened "additional measures" if Serbia failed to comply. After initial non-compliance, Serbia agreed to the deployment of unarmed Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) ceasefire monitors in the region – the Kosovo Verification Mission (KVM). Border clashes and renewed violence in Kosovo led to the deployment of NATO forces in neighboring Macedonia (XFOR) in December 1998, placed in the region as an extraction force, to support and rescue KVM monitors, if necessary.
Following the January 1999 massacre of Kosovo Albanians , the Contact Group issued an ultimatum to both sides to attend peace talks in Rambouillet, France in February. Milosevic refused to attend, and the talks concluded without an agreement. After Serbian forces began massing on the Kosovo border in March, NATO airstrikes against Serbian targets began on 24 March 1999. The air war continued for over two months until it was suspended on 10 June, following Serbia's agreement to withdraw its forces and accept a transitional UN administration (UNMIK) and KFOR, a NATO-led peacekeeping force and military authority in Kosovo (UNSCR 1244). Later that same month, after the Serbs completed their withdrawal from Kosovo, the NATO bombing campaign was formally ended. On a parallel track, the ICC announced on 27 May the indictment of Milosevic and four other Serbian officials for war crimes. The KLA agreed to DDR and completed the process in September 1999. UN sanctions remained in place until nearly a year after Milosevic resigned the presidency in September 2000 and were terminated by UNSCR 1367 on 10 September 2001.
Coerce the government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and the Kosovar Albanian leadership to cease hostilities and begin negotiations for a meaningful dialogue on political status issues.
Constrain both parties from escalating the armed conflict.
Signal to them the illegitimacy of use of force and support for Contact Group and OSCE efforts to mediate the conflict.
Arms imports embargo to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), including Kosovo (on all parties to the conflict).
Sanctions Committee created, no sanctions monitoring mechanism in place. Enforcement authorities not specified.
UNSCR 1367 terminating the sanctions noted with satisfaction that a substantive dialogue had begun, special police units were withdrawn, and access was provided to humanitarian organizations.
UN arms embargo was in place a year before NATO bombing campaign began but NATO airstrikes were most significant to the outcome.
Increases in costs were managed by both parties; Serbia had access to domestic arms production and the KLA had support from Albania.
NATO airstrikes and KVM monitoring most significant to the outcome.
Opposition to escalation of force was signaled, and both parties were clearly encouraged to engage in Contact Group and OSCE mediated talks.
Contact Group diplomacy and legal referrals to the ICC and ICTY were the most important signals.
Insufficient information available at present.