Haiti - EP 2

Duration: 27-Aug-1993 to 13-Oct-1993

UN sanctions were suspended by UNSCR 861 (27 August 1993), following the selection of a Prime Minister by President Aristide and the PM's confirmation and assumption of office (as per Articles 3 and 4 of the Governor's Island Agreement).

Neither party implemented core elements of the GIA, and the GIA lost legitimacy. UN Mission in Haiti was created in September 1993, but prevented from deployment in the Harlan County incident on 11 October 1993.


Coerce

N/A.

Constrain

Constrain Cédras (and Aristide) to abide by the terms of the GIA; automatic re-imposition if SG determined the parties have not complied in good faith with the GIA terms.

Signal

Signal support for a negotiated return to democratic governance in Haiti.


Mandatory

All sanctions measures (arms imports embargo on government forces, petroleum imports ban, government asset freeze) suspended.


All sanctions measures suspended.


Coercion

N/A

Policy outcome

No demands were made of any party in UNSCR 861.

Sanctions contribution

N/A.

Constraint

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Neither party lived up to the terms: Cédras used the period to stockpile weapons; Aristide was slow to submit an amnesty decree to Parliament.

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions were suspended because of the terms of the GIA. Some evidence of strengthening of the regime during the period.

Signaling

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Norm clearly articulated, but due to vagueness of GIA, on which the sanctions suspension was based, the application of the norm resulted in the partial legitimation of the Cédras regime (by implying both parties potentially equally at fault).

Sanctions contribution

Lifting of sanctions was the main instrument for the international community to signal support for the negotiated return to democracy in Haiti.


Strengthening of authoritarian rule, increase in human rights violations, strengthening of political factions, widespread harmful economic consequences.


27-08-1993

Substantive

  • Suspends all UNSCR 841 sanctions (arms imports embargo, petroleum imports ban, and financial asset freeze).