Following continued refusal to implement the GIA, increases in extra-judicial killings and arbitrary arrests, rape and enforced disappearances, and continued denial of freedom of expression in the country, the UN imposed comprehensive sanctions on Haiti (UNSCR 917, 6 May 1994).
Emile Jonassaint was installed as President by the de factos shortly following the comprehensive sanctions (installed on 11 May) and oversaw some of the harshest repression experienced under the military regime. OAS Ministers support stronger measures against Haiti in June and on 11 July the de factos expelled the remaining UN civilian mission from the country.
Coerce the military to restore the legitimate government of Aristide; comply with the Governor's Island Agreement (and allow the deployment of UNMIH).
Constrain the government leadership (the de factos) from committing further acts of violence against the Haitian people, from being able to govern the country, and from taking any role in the reinstated government (through comprehensive sanctions).
Signal the Cédras regime and the rest of the world about the importance of the norm of democratic governance.
Sanctions Committee in place, no sanctions monitoring mechanism. Enforcement authorities not specified.
With the appointment of Jonassaint, the regime was radicalized and increased its repression (though sanctions were only in place for a total of 3 months); explicit threat of use of force.
Sanctions were necessary, but not sufficient, as military option was increasingly mentioned.
Evidence of increase in costs (due largely to cumulative impact of sanctions) and evidence of change in strategy, an increase in repression during the period, as regime presumably has less to lose; the regime also spent increased time finding alternative sources of gas and other supplies.
Regime increased its proscribed activity (violence against its people and authoritarian rule with appointment of Jonassaint) and no longer had much incentive to comply with the other demands of the UNSCR.
Norm was re-articulated about return of Aristide; major stigmatization due to extension of sanctions and identification of sanctioned individuals for the first time; OAS called for even stronger measures.
Sanctions appear to have been necessary, but not sufficient; coincided with increased salience of threat of use of force during the period.
Strengthening of authoritarian rule, increase in human rights violations, strengthening of political factions, widespread harmful economic consequences, increase in corruption and criminality, humanitarian consequences, reduction of local institutional capacity.