Haiti - EP 4

Duration: 06-May-1994 to 31-Jul-1994

Following continued refusal to implement the GIA, increases in extra-judicial killings and arbitrary arrests, rape and enforced disappearances, and continued denial of freedom of expression in the country, the UN imposed comprehensive sanctions on Haiti (UNSCR 917, 6 May 1994).

Emile Jonassaint was installed as President by the de factos shortly following the comprehensive sanctions (installed on 11 May) and oversaw some of the harshest repression experienced under the military regime. OAS Ministers support stronger measures against Haiti in June and on 11 July the de factos expelled the remaining UN civilian mission from the country.


Coerce

Coerce the military to restore the legitimate government of Aristide; comply with the Governor's Island Agreement (and allow the deployment of UNMIH).

Constrain

Constrain the government leadership (the de factos) from committing further acts of violence against the Haitian people, from being able to govern the country, and from taking any role in the reinstated government (through comprehensive sanctions).

Signal

Signal the Cédras regime and the rest of the world about the importance of the norm of democratic governance.


Mandatory

Comprehensive sanctions.


Sanctions Committee in place, no sanctions monitoring mechanism. Enforcement authorities not specified.


Coercion

Ineffective

Policy outcome

With the appointment of Jonassaint, the regime was radicalized and increased its repression (though sanctions were only in place for a total of 3 months); explicit threat of use of force.

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions were necessary, but not sufficient, as military option was increasingly mentioned.

Constraint

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Evidence of increase in costs (due largely to cumulative impact of sanctions) and evidence of change in strategy, an increase in repression during the period, as regime presumably has less to lose; the regime also spent increased time finding alternative sources of gas and other supplies.

Sanctions contribution

Regime increased its proscribed activity (violence against its people and authoritarian rule with appointment of Jonassaint) and no longer had much incentive to comply with the other demands of the UNSCR.

Signaling

Effective

Policy outcome

Norm was re-articulated about return of Aristide; major stigmatization due to extension of sanctions and identification of sanctioned individuals for the first time; OAS called for even stronger measures.

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions appear to have been necessary, but not sufficient; coincided with increased salience of threat of use of force during the period.


Strengthening of authoritarian rule, increase in human rights violations, strengthening of political factions, widespread harmful economic consequences, increase in corruption and criminality, humanitarian consequences, reduction of local institutional capacity.


06-05-1994

Substantive

  • Imposes aviation ban and specifies humanitarian exemption (pending Committee approval).
  • Imposes travel ban on (1) all officers of Haitian military, including police, their immediate family, and those employed or acting on their behalf, and (2) major participants in 1991 coup d’état, subsequent illegal governments, and their immediate families, unless Committee exemption.
  • Urges financial asset freeze on those designated.
  • Imposes exports ban on all commodities and products originating in Haiti, as well as their transshipment, sale, supply, or related dealings (in force by 21.05.1994) and specifies medical, humanitarian, petroleum, and UNSCR 873 exemptions (pending Committee approval).
  • Excludes trade in informational materials, including books and other publications, and journalist equipment subject to UNSCR 841 exemption conditions.
  • Imposes ban on all traffic of commodities and products to and from the territory of Haiti, except formally monitored regularly scheduled shipping lines carrying permitted goods together with other goods in transit to other destinations.
  • Sets criteria for sanctions lifting.
  • Decides that any suspension of measures would be terminated in case of illegal removal of legitimately elected President.

Procedural

  • Modifies Sanctions Committee mandate.
  • Sets monthly sanctions reviews.
  • Requests MS reporting.