Haiti - EP 5

Duration: 31-Jul-1994 to 16-Oct-1994

Following the Cédras regime's refusal to comply with the terms of previous UNSCRs, its systematic violations of civil liberties, a deterioration in the humanitarian situation, the "desperate plight" of Haitian refugees, and the expulsion of the UN civilian mission staff (MICIVIH), the UN authorized the use of force to "facilitate the departure from Haiti of the military leadership" (UNSCR 940, 31 July 1994).

In late August, the SG informed the Council that the situation had deteriorated further. More high level extra judicial killings of Aristide supporters occurred, and the SG abandoned attempts at negotiations with the regime. By 15 September, US President Clinton announced that the multi-national force deployment was imminent. Three days later (18 September), the former US President Jimmy Carter reached an agreement for the departure of the de factos.

After Aristide returned to Haiti on 15 October, the sanctions were lifted and went into effect the following day (16 October), as per UNSCR 944 (29 September 1994).


Coerce

Coerce the military to restore the legitimate government of Aristide and to leave the country.

Constrain

Constrain the de factos from committing further acts of violence against the Haitian people and from being able to govern the country (through comprehensive sanctions and authorized use of force).

Signal

Signal the Cédras regime (and the rest of the world) that "the goal of the international community remains the restoration of democracy in Haiti." (UNSCR 940).


Mandatory

Comprehensive sanctions continued.


Sanctions Committee in place, no sanctions monitoring mechanism. Enforcement authorities not specified.


Coercion

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Cédras left power, but not according to the terms of original UNSCRs and was given political asylum in Panama under a special agreement negotiated by former US President Jimmy Carter.

Sanctions contribution

Impending use of force and Carter mediation were both decisive to outcome.

Constraint

Effective

Policy outcome

By the end of the episode, Cédras was no longer able to govern.

Sanctions contribution

Impending use of force and Carter mediation were also significant to outcome.

Signaling

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Norm of restoration of democracy in Haiti was very clearly articulated (both to Cédras and to larger international community). Cédras regime explicitly declared "illegal de facto regime" by UNSCR 940.

Sanctions contribution

Authorization of use of force was decisive to outcome.


Strengthening of authoritarian rule, increase in human rights violations, strengthening of political factions, widespread harmful economic consequences, increase in corruption and criminality, humanitarian consequences, reduction of local institutional capacity.


31-07-1994

Procedural

  • Authorizes formation of multinational force using all necessary means to facilitate departure of the military leadership from Haiti, prompting the return of legitimately elected President and restoration of legitimate Government authorities (until secure and stable environment is established and UNMIH has adequate capability and structure to assume full range of its functions).
  • Approves establishment of UNMIH advance team, specifies its mandate and personnel, and decides that UNMIH deploys upon completion of multinational force mission.
  • Increases UNMIH personnel and extends and modifies its mission (6 months).
  • Sets sanctions review for after President Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s return.
  • Requests MS reporting.

29-09-1994

Substantive

  • Terminates UNSCR 841, 873 and 917 sanctions one day after President Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s return.

Procedural

  • Dissolves Sanctions Committee one day after President Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s return.

15-10-1994

Substantive

  • Notes that President Jean-Bertrand Aristide has returned and reaffirms sanctions will be lifted the following day in accordance with UNSCR 944.