Liberia - EP 4

Duration: 22-Dec-2003 to 16-Jun-2006

Following the departure of Charles Taylor (regime change) and progress in the peace process in Sierra Leone, a peace enforcement sanctions regime was established in Liberia to ensure compliance with the comprehensive peace agreement signed in Accra on 18 August 2003 and to support the transitional government of national unity. The Liberian ceasefire was maintained, DDR implemented, and elections were held during this episode. UNSCR 1521 lifted the previous sanctions and immediately re-imposed them in support of a new objective: peace enforcement. The Council also articulated specific criteria for lifting.

UNSCR 1532 imposed financial sanctions on Charles Taylor, his family, and other close associates for misappropriating Liberian funds and property and using them to de-stabilize the transitional government during the early phase of this episode. Taylor appeared before the Sierra Leone Special Court in April 2006 and was extradited to the Hague in June 2006. Elections were held in 2005 with Ellen Johnson Sirleaf taking office January 2006.


Coerce

N/A.

Constrain

Constrain parties that might threaten the comprehensive peace agreement and the transitional government of national unity.

Signal

Signal support for the comprehensive peace agreement and the transitional government of national unity.


Mandatory

Adjustments to ongoing sanctions:
  • Ongoing sanctions were terminated and re-imposed:
  • Arms imports embargo on all parties (exempting internationally trained armed forces and police);
  • Ban on exports of rough diamonds and timber;
  • Travel ban on individuals undermining peace and stability or supporting armed rebel groups in Liberia and the sub-region (including senior members of former President Charles Taylor's Government, their spouses, and members of Liberia's former armed forces retaining links to Charles Taylor).
Newly imposed sanctions:
  • Asset freeze on Charles Taylor, his family members, and close associates (from March 2004).

With the exception of the asset freeze, sanctions were re-imposed for a limited time period (6 months and 1 year) and periodically renewed. Existing Sanctions Committee and Panel of Experts were dissolved and replaced with a new Sanctions Committee and Panel of Experts. Designation criteria were specified and targets designated (maximum number of designees during the episode – 59 individual travel ban designees and 28 individual and 30 entity asset freeze designees). Enforcement authorities specified, PKO had enforcement role.


Coercion

N/A

Policy outcome

N/A.

Sanctions contribution

N/A.

Constraint

Effective

Policy outcome

Panel of Experts concludes that sanctions helped to stabilize the situation in Liberia; elections were held, DDR took place, though Taylor tried to de-stabilize the process at the outset.

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions against the remnants of Taylor's regime reinforced the peacebuilding efforts of the government of Liberia, but international tribunals (the Sierra Leone Special Court and ICC) played a major role in constraining Charles Taylor.

Signaling

Effective

Policy outcome

Potential spoilers were deterred from destabilizing the regime.

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions reinforced the peacebuilding efforts of the government of Liberia and international tribunals played a major role in constraining the remnants of Charles Taylor's regime.


Increase in international enforcement capacity in different issue domains, humanitarian consequences, widespread harmful economic consequences.


22-12-2003

Substantive

  • Terminates UNSCR 1343 arms imports embargo, diamond exports, and diplomatic and individual travel ban and UNSCR 1478 timber exports ban.
  • Imposes new arms imports embargo (1 year) to any recipient in Liberia, including all non-State actors, including technical training and assistance related to provision, manufacture, maintenance or use of arms and related materiel.
  • Specifies arms imports embargo exemptions for UNMIL, UN exported protective clothing for media and humanitarian and development workers, as well as international training and reform programme for Liberian armed forces and police, non-lethal military equipment and related assistance or training for humanitarian and protective use (pending prior Committee approval).
  • Imposes new travel ban (1 year), extends travel ban to those designated pursuant UNSCR 1343, and specifies criteria for designation, including senior members of former President Charles Taylor’s Government, their spouses, and members of Liberia’s former armed forces who retain links to him, or those in violation of arms imports embargo.
  • Specifies humanitarian, religious, and peace, stability and democracy travel ban exemptions (pending Committee approval).
  • Imposes new rough diamond exports ban (1 year) and expresses its readiness to terminate it when Liberia establishes a transparent, effective and internationally verifiable Certificate of Origin regime.
  • Imposes new timber exports ban (1 year).
  • Welcomes UNMIL’s readiness to assist with sanctions monitoring.

Procedural

  • Dissolves UNSCR 1343 Sanctions Committee.
  • Establishes new Sanctions Committee and specifies its mandate.
  • (Re-)establishes Panel of Experts (5 months) and specifies its mandate.
  • Sets sanctions review (by 17.06.2004).

12-03-2004

Substantive

  • Imposes financial asset freeze on Charles Taylor, Jewell Howard Taylor, Charles Taylor Jr., and others designated by Committee.
  • Specifies exemptions for necessary basic expenses, extraordinary expenses, and expenses subject of a judicial, administrative or arbitral lien or judgment (pending Committee approval).

Procedural

  • Specifies criteria for optional additions of account payments and interests.
  • Modifies Sanctions Committee mandate.
  • Sets annual sanctions review (first by 22.12.2004).

17-06-2004

Procedural

  • Re-establishes Panel of Experts (until 21.12.2004) and specifies its mandate [not under Chapter VII].

21-12-2004

Substantive

  • Renews UNSCR 1521 arms imports embargo, travel, and timber exports ban (1 year) and UNSCR 1521 diamond exports ban (6 months).

Procedural

  • Re-establishes Panel of Experts (6 months) and specifies its mandate.
  • Sets sanctions review (6 months, 3 months for diamond exports ban).

21-06-2005

Substantive

  • Renews UNSCR 1521 diamond exports ban (6 months).

Procedural

  • Specifies UNMIL mandate related to sanctions monitoring.
  • Re-establishes Panel of Experts (6 months) and specifies its mandate.

11-11-2005

Procedural

  • Modifies UNMIL mandate to apprehend and detain former President Charles Taylor if he returns to Liberia, transferring him to Sierra Leone for prosecution.

20-12-2005

Substantive

  • Renews UNSCR 1521 arms exports embargo and travel ban (1 year).
  • Renews UNSCR 1521 diamond and timber exports ban (6 months).

Procedural

  • Re-establishes Panel of Experts (6 months) and specifies its mandate.

13-06-2006

Substantive

  • Adds UNSCR 1521 arms imports embargo exemption for Special Security Service on weapons and ammunition already provided to them and Committee approved limited supplies of weapons and ammunition intended for Government of Liberia police and security forces vetted and trained since inception of UNMIL (partial lifting).
  • Decides that for these exemptions, Government of Liberia shall mark these weapons and ammunition, maintain registry of them, and formally notify Committee that these steps were taken.