Following the departure of Charles Taylor (regime change) and progress in the peace process in Sierra Leone, a peace enforcement sanctions regime was established in Liberia to ensure compliance with the comprehensive peace agreement signed in Accra on 18 August 2003 and to support the transitional government of national unity. The Liberian ceasefire was maintained, DDR implemented, and elections were held during this episode. UNSCR 1521 lifted the previous sanctions and immediately re-imposed them in support of a new objective: peace enforcement. The Council also articulated specific criteria for lifting.
UNSCR 1532 imposed financial sanctions on Charles Taylor, his family, and other close associates for misappropriating Liberian funds and property and using them to de-stabilize the transitional government during the early phase of this episode. Taylor appeared before the Sierra Leone Special Court in April 2006 and was extradited to the Hague in June 2006. Elections were held in 2005 with Ellen Johnson Sirleaf taking office January 2006.
Constrain parties that might threaten the comprehensive peace agreement and the transitional government of national unity.
Signal support for the comprehensive peace agreement and the transitional government of national unity.
Maximum number of designees during the episode: travel ban - 59 individuals, asset freeze - 28 individuals and 30 entities.
UN sanctions can have some non-discriminating impact on the general population, since they include arms embargoes, diplomatic sanctions, and/or restrictions on the conduct of particular activities or the export of specific commodities.
With the exception of the asset freeze, sanctions were re-imposed for a limited time period (6 months and 1 year) and periodically renewed. Existing Sanctions Committee and Panel of Experts were dissolved and replaced with a new Sanctions Committee and Panel of Experts. Designation criteria were specified and targets designated. Enforcement authorities specified, PKO had enforcement role.
Panel of Experts concludes that sanctions helped to stabilize the situation in Liberia; elections were held, DDR took place, though Taylor tried to de-stabilize the process at the outset.
Sanctions against the remnants of Taylor's regime reinforced the peacebuilding efforts of the government of Liberia, but international tribunals (the Sierra Leone Special Court and ICC) played a major role in constraining Charles Taylor.
Potential spoilers were deterred from destabilizing the regime.
Sanctions reinforced the peacebuilding efforts of the government of Liberia and international tribunals played a major role in constraining the remnants of Charles Taylor's regime.
Increase in international enforcement capacity in different issue domains, humanitarian consequences, widespread harmful economic consequences.