Libya I - EP 3

Duration: 05-Apr-1999 to 12-Sep-2003

Sanctions were suspended on 5 April 1999 (Press release SC/6662) once the two suspects were handed over to the special Scottish Court in the Netherlands (as specified in UNSCR 1192) and terminated on 12 September 2003 (UNSCR 1506) once compensation was provided and Libya renounced terrorism.


Coerce

Coerce the Government of Libya to provide compensation and renounce terrorism.

Constrain

N/A.

Signal

Signal Libya and international community about norm against state-sponsored terrorism.


Mandatory

All sanctions (aviation ban, arms imports embargo, diplomatic sanctions, government asset freeze, and oil services equipment ban) were suspended in April 1999 (seven months after the conditions for suspension were set in UNSCR 1192) but not terminated until September 2003.


All sanctions suspended.


Coercion

Effective

Policy outcome

Suspects were turned over, trials conducted, compensation provided, and terrorism renounced, but not on the precise terms of the original UNSCRs.

Sanctions contribution

Suspension of sanctions was significant to reinforce legal procedures underway in domestic and international courts regarding compensation.

Constraint

N/A

Policy outcome

N/A.

Sanctions contribution

N/A.

Signaling

Mixed

Policy outcome

Norms against state-sponsored terrorism were consistently articulated in relevant UNSCRs (1192 and 1506), but Qadhafi was able to mobilize support from the AU. Arab League, Non-Aligned Movement and Organization of the Islamic Conference to limit the extent of his stigmatization.

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions suspension created an incentive to accept norms against state-sponsored terrorism in order for Libya to be re-legitimized and re-integrated into the international community.


Strengthening of authoritarian rule.


05-04-1999

Substantive

  • Suspends all UNSCR 748 and 883 sanctions measures.

12-09-2003

Substantive

  • Lifts all sanctions against Libya (UNSCR 748 and 883).

Procedural

• Dissolves Sanctions Committee.