In June of 1995, the Council expressed growing concerns about incursions from former government forces based in Zaire (some housed in refugee camps). The Rwandan government formally requested a lifting of the arms embargo in July (in order to protect Rwandans from the incursions), and the Council passed UNSCR 1011 on 16 August 1995, suspending for one year (until 1 September 1996) the arms embargo against the government. Sanctions on the government were allowed to expire in September 1996, but they remained in place against non-governmental forces operating within and from the DRC until they were finally lifted on 10 July 2008 (UNSCR 1823).
Constrain non-governmental forces in their access to weapons to continue the conflict in both Rwanda and the DRC.
Signal support for the legitimacy of the government in Rwanda.
Target of the ongoing arms imports embargo changed from all parties to the conflict to non-governmental forces (Government arms imports through named points of entry).
No individual sanctions imposed.
UN sanctions can have some non-discriminating impact on the general population, since they include arms embargoes, diplomatic sanctions, and/or restrictions on the conduct of particular activities or the export of specific commodities.
Termination of arms embargo on the Government of Rwanda (Government obligation to mark, register, and notify all imports terminated in March 2007). Sanctions Committee in place, no sanctions monitoring mechanism. Enforcement authorities not specified.
No demands were made in any of the relevant UNSCRs.
The conflict continued even after the lifting of the arms embargo in 2008 (although it has largely been displaced into the DRC).
Weapons remain freely available in neighboring countries (DRC) and the borders are largely unenforced; regional war underway in the Great Lakes region throughout the long episode.
Weakly articulated in the UNSCRs; continues to be challenged by rebel forces.
Diplomatic recognition of the government and increase in aid flows to the government were most significant to the outcome.
Increase in corruption and/or criminality, harmful effects on neighboring states, decline in the credibility and/or legitimacy of UN Security Council, increase in arms flow into the DRC.