Rwanda - EP 2

Duration: 16-Aug-1996 to 10-Jul-2008

In June of 1995, the Council expressed growing concerns about incursions from former government forces based in Zaire (some housed in refugee camps). The Rwandan government formally requested a lifting of the arms embargo in July (in order to protect Rwandans from the incursions), and the Council passed UNSCR 1011 on 16 August 1995, suspending for one year (until 1 September 1996) the arms embargo against the government. Sanctions on the government were allowed to expire in September 1996, but they remained in place against non-governmental forces operating within and from the DRC until they were finally lifted on 10 July 2008 (UNSCR 1823).


Coerce

N/A.

Constrain

Constrain non-governmental forces in their access to weapons to continue the conflict in both Rwanda and the DRC.

Signal

Signal support for the legitimacy of the government in Rwanda.


Mandatory

Target of the ongoing arms imports embargo changed from all parties to the conflict to non-governmental forces (Government arms imports through named points of entry).


Termination of arms embargo on the Government of Rwanda (Government obligation to mark, register, and notify all imports terminated in March 2007). Sanctions Committee in place, no sanctions monitoring mechanism. Enforcement authorities not specified.


Coercion

N/A

Policy outcome

No demands were made in any of the relevant UNSCRs.

Sanctions contribution

N/A.

Constraint

Ineffective

Policy outcome

The conflict continued even after the lifting of the arms embargo in 2008 (although it has largely been displaced into the DRC).

Sanctions contribution

Weapons remain freely available in neighboring countries (DRC) and the borders are largely unenforced; regional war underway in the Great Lakes region throughout the long episode.

Signaling

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Weakly articulated in the UNSCRs; continues to be challenged by rebel forces.

Sanctions contribution

Diplomatic recognition of the government and increase in aid flows to the government were most significant to the outcome.


Increase in corruption and/or criminality, harmful effects on neighboring states, decline in the credibility and/or legitimacy of UN Security Council, increase in arms flow into the DRC.


16-08-1995

Substantive

  • Modifies UNSCR 918 arms imports embargo target to non-governmental forces for their use in Rwanda.
  • Exempts arms supplies to Government of Rwanda taking place through named points of entry provided by the Government from the UNSCR 918 arms imports embargo (until 01.09.1996).
  • Terminates UNSCR 918 arms imports embargo on Government of Rwanda (on 01.09.1996), prohibits any re-sale, transfer, or use of such arms by others, and requires it to mark, register, and notify Committee of all arms imports.

Procedural

  • Requires MS reporting on arms imports to Rwanda.

07-09-1995

Procedural

  • Requests Secretary-General to establish International Commission of Inquiry and specifies its mandate.

26-03-2004

Substantive

  • Calls upon MS, especially Rwanda, Kenya, DRC, and Republic of the Congo to intensify cooperation with and render all necessary assistance to ICTR.

28-03-2007

Substantive

  • Terminates UNSCR 1011 MS obligation to notify Committee of arms imports to Rwanda and Government of Rwanda obligation to mark, register, and notify all such imports.

10-07-2008

Substantive

  • Terminates UNSCR 1011 arms imports embargo.

Procedural

  • Dissolves Sanctions Committee.