Sierra Leone - EP 2

Duration: 16-Mar-1998 to 22-Oct-1999

Kabbah was returned to power and sanctions on the government were suspended, but retained on rebel groups (including AFRC remnants and the RUF) to coerce them to cease hostilities and reach a negotiated comprehensive political settlement of the conflict; UN military presence is increased.

UNSCRs during the episode included UNSCR 1156 (lifting oil embargo); UNSCR 1162 (authorizing small UN military observer mission); UNSCR 1171 (relaxing travel ban and arms embargo, but maintains it on the RUF and some AFRC); UNSCR 1181 (creating UNOMSIL and expanding it to up to 70); and UNSCR 1260 (commending the signing of the Lomé Agreement on 7 July 1999, which establishes a Truth and Reconciliation Commission, and authorizing up to 210 UNOMSIL military observers).


Coerce

Coerce rebel groups to cease hostilities and reach a negotiated political settlement.

Constrain

Constrain the ousted members of the AFRC and the RUF from engaging in conflict and challenging the restored Kabbah government (since rebel groups control most of the territory and resources – diamonds – of the country).

Signal

Signal support for regional peace initiatives and ceasefire.


Mandatory

Modifies the ongoing travel ban to include leading members of former military junta and RUF and changes the target of the arms imports embargo to non-governmental entities (Government arms imports through named points of entry) in June 1998.

Terminates petroleum imports ban at the beginning of the episode.


Sanctions Committee in place, no sanctions monitoring mechanism. Designation criteria were specified and targets designated. Enforcement authorities specified, PKO had enforcement role.


Coercion

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Lomé Agreement was reached on July 7, 1999, but the agreement was flawed because it legitimized the RUF and gave it access to and control over diamond resources.

Sanctions contribution

ECOMOG and Togolese diplomatic intervention appear to have been more salient.

Constraint

Ineffective

Policy outcome

RUF controlled most of the territory of the country during this period and challenged the Kabbah government.

Sanctions contribution

Lomé Agreement legitimized RUF and access to diamond resources, arms amply available, and mobility was not constrained due to porosity of borders.

Signaling

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Diffuse norms, rebels were told to cease hostilities, no mention of RUF, and Lomé peace agreement legitimized them.

Sanctions contribution

Legitimation came from the Lomé peace agreement.


Increase in corruption and/or criminality, increase in human rights violations, humanitarian consequences.


16-03-1998

Substantive

  • Terminates UNSCR 1132 petroleum imports ban.

05-06-1998

Substantive

  • Terminates UNSCR 1132 travel ban and arms imports embargo.
  • Imposes arms imports embargo on non-governmental entities, exempting ECOMOG and arms supplies to Government of Sierra Leone taking place through named points of entry provided by the Government.
  • Imposes travel ban on leading members of former military junta and Revolutionary United Front (RUF).
  • Specifies conditions for sanctions termination.

Procedural

  • Modifies Sanctions Committee mandate.
  • Requires MS to notify Committee of all arms imports to Sierra Leone and Government of Sierra Leone to mark, register, and notify Committee of any such imports.