Sierra Leone - EP 3

Duration: 22-Oct-1999 to 05-Jul-2000

Sanctions remained unchanged, but a large 6000 troop UN peacekeeping operation (UNAMSIL) was authorized (UNSCR 1270, 22 October 1999) and doubled in size to more than 13,000 during the episode (UNSCR 1299, 19 May 2000), changing significantly the relationship between sender and target (the RUF); much greater focus on RUF as target from this point onward; 800 British paratroopers sent to Freetown to evacuate British nationals and secure the airport for the UN (8-10 May 2000).


Coerce

Coerce rebel factions to cease hostilities.

Constrain

Constrain the rebels from challenging the government (in support of the implementation of the Lomé agreement).

Signal

Signal the RUF and remnants of the AFRC to cease hostilities (particularly hostage taking of UNOMIL observers and attacks on ECOMOG forces).


Mandatory

Ongoing arms imports embargo on non-governmental entities and travel ban on leading members of former military junta (AFRC) and the RUF.


Sanctions Committee in place, no sanctions monitoring mechanism. Designation criteria were specified and targets designated. Enforcement authorities specified, PKO had enforcement role.


Coercion

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Significant increase in armed violence by RUF during this episode, abduction of UN troops, war between UNAMIL and RUF intensified, RUF closed in on Freetown May 2000), British intervened (8-10 May 2000).

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions remained unchanged and major increase in external military intervention by UNAMSIL (February 2000) and later by the UK (May 2000).

Constraint

Ineffective

Policy outcome

RUF was not significantly constrained until major UN and UK forces arrive in 2000.

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions remained unchanged and major increase in external military intervention.

Signaling

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Diffuse norms (protection of civilians, human rights, HIV/AIDS, attacks on UN personnel), still trying to reinforce Lomé agreement, while doubling the number of UNAMSIL forces.

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions remained unchanged and major increase in external military intervention.


Increase in corruption and/or criminality, increase in human rights violations, humanitarian consequences.


22-10-1999

Substantive

  • Authorizes UNAMSIL to ensure its security and freedom of movement and protect civilians under imminent threat of physical violence.

Procedural

  • Establishes UNAMSIL (6 months) and specifies its mandate and troop levels, further specifying that UNAMSIL will take over from UNOMSIL whose mandate shall thus terminate [not under Chapter VII].

07-02-2000

Procedural

  • Extends and modifies UNAMSIL mandate (6 months), increasing its troop levels.

19-05-2000

Substantive

  • Adds UNSCR 1171 arms imports embargo exemption for MS cooperating with UNAMSIL and Government of Sierra Leone.