Sierra Leone - EP 5

Duration: 16-Jan-2002 to 29-Sep-2010

Armed conflict was officially declared over (January 2002), Kabbah won landslide election (May 2002), British forces left (July 2002) and sanctions remained in place to support a larger peacebuilding process. Sierra Leone became one of the first two countries (along with Burundi) officially taken up by the UN's Peacebuilding Architecture. Sanctions gradually phased out (diamond sanctions lapsed in 5 June 2003), as peacebuilding activities (DDR, SSR, reconciliation) became more prominent.


Coerce

Support peacebuilding efforts in Sierra Leone; draw down PKO, convert PKO to support DDR, and establish a Peacebuilding office; coerce/induce rebel factions to participate in peace-building process.

Constrain

Constrain potential spoilers.

Signal

Signal rebel factions and to the international community, the utility of peace building support activities of the UNPBC.


Mandatory

Ongoing travel ban, arms imports embargo on non-governmental entities, and ban on export of rough diamonds (not certified by Kimberley Process).

Diamond exports ban lapsed in June 2003, all other sanctions were terminated in September 2010.


Diamond exports ban sanctions were renewed for a limited time period (6 months), travel ban and arms imports embargo in place indefinitely. Sanctions Committee in place, no sanctions monitoring mechanism (mandate of Panel of Experts not renewed). Designation criteria were specified and targets designated (maximum number of designees during the episode – 57 individual designees). Enforcement authorities specified, PKO had enforcement role.


Coercion

N/A

Policy outcome

N/A.

Sanctions contribution

N/A.

Constraint

Effective

Policy outcome

Potential spoilers were constrained; substantial DDR as early as February 2004, local elections took place, war crimes trials began, peacekeepers departed, peaceful transition from Kabbah regime to opposition party..

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions supported complementary peacebuilding activities.

Signaling

Effective

Policy outcome

Potential spoilers were deterred from destabilizing the regime, PBC credited with some success.

Sanctions contribution

Sanctions combined with rulings of the special court to stigmatize former RUF leaders.


Increase in the growth of the state role in the economy.


16-01-2002

Substantive

  • Welcomes official completion of the disarmament process.

Procedural

  • Modifies UNAMSIL mandate and increases its personnel.

04-12-2002

Substantive

  • Renews UNSCR 1306 diamond exports ban (6 months) and affirms exemption for diamonds controlled by Government of Sierra Leone under Certificate of Origin regime.

Procedural

  • Sets sanctions review (6 months).

17-09-2004

Substantive

  • Sets objectives for Sierra Leone.

Procedural

  • Extends and modifies UNAMSIL mandate (until 30.06.2005), authorizing it to use all means necessary to carry out its mandate.

16-06-2006

Substantive

  • Decides Government of the Netherlands shall facilitate implementation of decision of the Special Court to conduct trial of former President Taylor in the Netherlands and the Court shall retain exclusive jurisdiction over him during his transfer to and presence in the Netherlands.
  • Adds UNSCR 1521 (Liberia sanction regime) travel ban exemption for trial-related travel of former President Taylor and any required witnesses.

30-03-2007

Procedural

  • Extends and modifies UNMIL mandate (until 30.09.2007) to include support and security for activities conducted in Liberia by Special Court for Sierra Leone.

21-12-2007

Substantive

  • Adds UNSCR 1171 travel ban exemption for trial-related travel of any required witnesses.

29-09-2010

Substantive

  • Terminates UNSCR 1171 travel ban, arms imports embargo and related marking, registering, and notification obligations.

Procedural

  • Dissolves Sanctions Committee.