Somalia / Eritrea - EP 2

Duration: 03-May-2002 to 20-Nov-2008

Following six and a half years of inaction, the UNSC became re-engaged with Somalia in 2002, with the passage of two resolutions that created a Somalia Panel of Experts for the first time (UNSCR 1407, 3 May 2002 and UNSCR 1425, 22 July 2002). There was a growing concern during this episode that highly fragmented states like Somalia could become havens for a variety of different transnational threats, not only within the region, but also including international terrorism. The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (or IGAD) composed of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Uganda, Sudan, Djibouti, Kenya and Somalia played an important role in the creation of the Transitional National Government in 2000 and sponsored the Eldoret Declaration, signed in Kenya in October 2002, which provided the basis for a larger political settlement and specifically referenced concerns about terrorism (in Article 5).

The Transitional National Government was replaced by the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) in 2004, which was increasingly supported as the official government of Somalia by the international community via the UN. The conflict had morphed from one of civil war amongst clan-based factions in the 1990s to growing challenges to the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) from the United Islamic Courts (UIC) starting in 2004. UIC was militarily defeated in 2006 when Ethiopia (with strong US backing) invaded the country. UNSCR 1744 (20 February 2007) authorized the creation of an AU peacekeeping force (AMISOM) to stabilize Somalia after the departure of Ethiopian troops. The conflict in Somalia increasingly became a proxy war between the TFG (backed by Ethiopia, among others) and the UIC (backed by Eritrea, among others).


Coerce

Coerce challengers to the TFG (especially the UIC) to cease hostilities and accept a ceasefire.

Constrain

Constrain all parties to the conflict from engaging in hostilities.

Signal

Signal disapproval of the interference of neighboring states in the conflict.


Mandatory

Ongoing arms imports embargo on all parties to the conflict (conditional government exemptions from February 2007).


Sanctions Committee in place, Panel of Experts created, later replaced by Monitoring Group. Enforcement authorities not specified.


Coercion

Ineffective

Policy outcome

The UIC was not coerced to cease hostilities or agree to a ceasefire.

Sanctions contribution

Although the UNSC had re-engaged with Somalia, the Ethiopian invasion and military defeat of the UIC was the single most important factor.

Constraint

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Evidence that the flow of weapons into Somalia increased during the episode.

Sanctions contribution

The proxy war increased the flow of arms into the region, AMISOM given no authorization to enforce the arms embargo.

Signaling

Ineffective

Policy outcome

Degree of external interference increased during the episode; Somalia was invaded by one neighbor, and proxy war broke out within the region.

Sanctions contribution

Re-engagement of the UNSC initially supported the signal, but sanctions remained essentially unchanged; other measures (US backing for Ethiopia) and the lack of UNSC response following the invasion weakened the signal.


Increase in corruption and criminality, resource diversion, decline in the credibility and/or legitimacy of UN Security Council.


03-05-2002

Procedural

  • Establishes Panel of Experts (30 days) and specifies its mandate.
  • Requests MS reporting.

22-07-2002

Substantive

  • Specifies UNSCR 733 arms imports embargo prohibits also related financing.
  • Adds provision of technical advice, financial assistance, military training and related activities to UNSCR 733 arms imports embargo.

Procedural

  • Establishes Panel of Experts (6 months) and specifies its mandate.
  • Calls for MS reporting.

08-04-2003

Procedural

  • Re-establishes Panel of Experts (6 months) and specifies its mandate.
  • Decides to send Committee Mission to Somalia.
  • Calls for MS reporting.

16-12-2003

Procedural

  • Establishes Monitoring Group (6 months) and specifies its mandate.
  • Calls for neighboring MS reporting.

17-08-2004

Procedural

  • Re-establishes Monitoring Group (6 months) and specifies its mandate.

15-03-2005

Procedural

  • Re-establishes Monitoring Group (6 months) and specifies its mandate.

14-10-2005

Procedural

  • Re-establishes Monitoring Group (6 months) and specifies its mandate.

10-05-2006

Procedural

  • Re-establishes Monitoring Group (6 months) and specifies its mandate.

29-11-2006

Procedural

  • Re-establishes Monitoring Group (6 months) and specifies its mandate.

06-12-2006

Substantive

  • Adds UNSCR 733 and 1425 arms imports embargo exemption for IGASOM.

Procedural

  • Authorizes IGAD and AU protection and training mission in Somalia (IGASOM) and specifies its mandate (6 months).

20-02-2007

Substantive

  • Adds UNSCR 733 and 1425 arms imports embargo exemption for AMISOM and developing security sector institutions (absence of negative Committee decision).
  • Terminates UNSCR 1725 IGASOM provisions (replaced with AMISOM).

Procedural

  • Authorizes AU mission in Somalia (AMISOM) and specifies its mandate (6 months).
  • Requires Committee notification by MS providing support or assistance developing security sector institutions.
  • Sends Technical Assessment Mission to AU and Somalia to report on possibility of UN PKO.

23-07-2007

Procedural

  • Re-establishes Monitoring Group (6 months) and specifies its mandate.

20-08-2007

Substantive

  • Calls upon MS to exercise vigilance regarding Somali Piracy.

Procedural

  • Extends AMISOM (6 months) and specifies its mandate.
  • Requests Secretary-General to continue planning possible UN PKO deployment replacing AMISOM.

20-02-2008

Substantive

  • Calls upon MS to exercise vigilance regarding Somali Piracy.

Procedural

  • Extends AMISOM mandate (6 months).

29-04-2008

Procedural

  • Re-establishes Monitoring Group (6 months) and specifies its mandate.

15-05-2008

Substantive

  • Welcomes United Nations Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS) relocation from Nairobi to Somalia.
  • Requests Secretary-General to continue planning possible deployment of UN PKO in Somalia, taking over from AMISOM.

02-06-2008

Substantive

  • Authorizes MS entry into and use of all necessary means within Somalian territorial waters for the purpose of repressing acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea, provided Transitional Federal Government of Somalia (TFG) notification (6 months).
  • Specifies that this authorization (given with TFG consent) applies only with respect to situation in Somalia and shall not be establishing customary international law.

Procedural

  • Requests reporting by MS acting under this authorization.

07-10-2008

Substantive

  • Condemns all acts of piracy.
  • Calls for MS to fight piracy and urges their cooperation on the matter.