Sanctions work in a number of different ways. Most sanctions regimes have multiple purposes, they can attempt to:
All three purposes can be pursued simultaneously, or sanctions can focus only on one or two of these aspects.
Since the late 1990s, there has been a move towards the use of targeted sanctions. There are a number of different ways in which sanctions can be targeted. In terms of individual targets, sanctions can be focused on:
The UN Security Council has imposed a broad range of mandatory, conditional, and recommended (voluntary) sanctions measures. Broadly speaking, these can be divided into the following categories (from most to least targeted):
There are a number of other ways in which the scope of sanctions can be limited. Sanctions can be restricted to specific territories within a country, can be limited in duration, or can be exempted for different activities.
The work of the UN Security Council is often supported by the appointment of:
Ideally, sanctions should not only be periodically reviewed in terms of their focus, mandate, and effectiveness, but also in light of their overall objective:
To help clarify the signal and outline the desired path for targets, the concrete criteria for sanctions suspension and termination should be clearly specified.
UN sanctions should be kept current through periodic: