18 May 2012 - Present
(about 9 years)
Democracy support
Sanction Types
  • Travel (individual travel ban)
Non-UN Sanctions
Regional (EU, ECOWAS, AU), Unilateral (no)
Other Policy Instruments


Guinea-Bissau has lived under almost continuous political instability since its declaration of independence in 1973. Following a few years of post-colonial government (which also included Cape Verde), in 1980, then prime-minister João Bernardo "Nino" Vieira led a coup that overthrew the republican government and established a long-lasting “revolutionary council” under his leadership. After a multi-party election in 1994 (which he won) and the establishment of his government, Vieira was overthrown by a military coup in 1998, which started a civil war. Following the war and a new election in 2000, a new government was established but did not last long, as another coup in 2003 supplanted it under allegations of executive “incapacity.”

New presidential elections were finally held in 2005 and saw the victory, once again, of Nuno Vieira. He was assassinated by the military in March 2009, which imposed a new transitional government. In July 2009, Malam Bacai Sanhá was elected President. His government experienced, between 2010 and 2012 a series of military uprisings and at least one coup attempt in 2011. In January 2012, President Sanhá died of unknown causes in Paris.


The analysis of the Guinea-Bissau case is divided into the following episodes (also navigable via the numbers in the top bar):