Provides an overview of all sanctions regimes imposed by the UN in the post-Cold War period. It includes not only the summary information for the 26 country cases, including their objectives and brief background, but also specific details for each episode within a case, including its purposes, effectiveness, and UN Security Council resolutions adopted during the time period.
Each sanctions regime created by the UN presents a separate case. Cases are defined mostly, but not exclusively, in terms of a country to which the restrictions apply. General information about each case is provided in the following format:
Episodes are specific, distinguishable periods within a case. They are defined principally by change in the nature of the sanction regime - in terms of type of sanctions, target of sanctions, purpose of sanctions, or significant change in enforcement. Very rarely, dramatic changes on the ground may also trigger a new episode. Specific information for each episode is provided in the following format:
Objectives refer to sanctions' formal goals articulated in UN Security Council resolutions. More than one of the following objectives may apply to a specific case or episode:
For more information about the different types of objectives, please consult the “Analogy finder” section of the user guide.
Purposes, as the general means through which sanctions are supposed to achieve policy objectives, include the following three mechanisms:
All three purposes can be pursued simultaneously, or sanctions can focus only on one or two of these aspects. The specific purpose for each episode is identified through an analysis of the stated goals and demands on the target contained in UN Security Council resolutions.
Effectiveness of sanctions during each episode is evaluated separately for each of the three sanctions purposes (if applicable):
The resulting evaluation (effective, mixed, or ineffective) depends on two separate considerations, the specific scores for which are explained in the text:
The threshold for effectiveness is high. Effective sanctions have a positive policy outcome (4 or 5) and at least a modest (3 out of 5) sanctions contribution to that outcome. Mixed cases also include a moderate outcome (3). Ineffective cases either have negative outcomes (1 or 2) or the observable sanctions contribution to the outcome is negative (0), none (1), or minor (2).
Indicates presence of other significant efforts by the UN, individual member states, or regional organizations. These include the following non-sanctions measures:
For more information about the different types of policy instruments, please consult the “Analogy finder” section of the user guide.