Angola

Overview


Status
Terminated
Duration
15 September 1993 - 9 December 2002
(about 9 years)
Objectives
Counter-terrorism, Peace enforcement, Democracy support
Sanction Types
  • Asset freeze (individual / entity)
  • Diplomatic (limit diplomatic representation, limit travel, visa cancellation)
  • Arms (arms imports embargo)
  • Commodity (petroleum imports ban, mining services and equipment imports ban, diamond exports ban)
  • Transportation (aviation ban, transportation services and equipment ban)
Non-UN Sanctions
Regional (no), Unilateral (US)
Other Policy Instruments
Diplomacy, Peace operations, Use of military force, DDR/SSR

Background


Following independence from Portugal in 1975, Angola experienced years of internal armed conflict between three rival factions involved in the anti-colonial struggle against Portugal: the MPLA (People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labor Party) backed by the former Soviet Union, and its rivals, UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola) and the FNLA (National Front for the Liberation of Angola) backed by the US, apartheid South Africa, and China. With strong Soviet and Cuban backing, the MPLA emerged as the country's government in 1975, but it faced continuous internal armed opposition from UNITA (which joined forces with the FNLA) for more than two decades. The Bicesse Accords (31 May 1991) provided for a political settlement of the Angolan conflict, including elections under the auspices of the UN (UN Angola Verification Mission, UNAVEM II). Elections were held in late September 1992, the results were disputed by UNITA, and the civil war resumed.

Episodes


The analysis of the Angola case is divided into the following episodes (navigatable via the numbers in the top bar):

Episode 1 (15 Sep 1993 - 28 Aug 1997)

Episode 2 (28 Aug 1997 - 12 Jun 1998)

Episode 3 (12 Jun 1998 - 12 Jan 1999)

Episode 4 (12 Jan 1999 - 9 Dec 2002)